Guide to Fabrics
Fabric is a cloth composed of various different elements. There are many different parts of the fabric that help it to gain the characteristics that shape its identity. All garments sold in the United States are required to have a fiber identification label used to list the various fibers in the clothing. Generally, once you know the composition of the clothing it is easy to predict how the behavior will perform. This will help when determining which fabrics will be best for which garments.
Tiny strands, these are the atoms of clothing. These can be man-made or natural. (See: Clothing Fibers Article)
Fibers that are twisted together.
A chemical treatment added to the fabric to improve its qualities.
The ability of fabrics to withstand daily use.
The ability of fabrics or fibers to soak up water or moisture.
The ability of fabrics to generally not look wrinkled.
The ability of fabrics or fibers to not lose color when washed.
Types of Fabrics
Fabric formed by interlacing yarns at right angles.
Plain Weave- evenly woven, strongest weave
Satin Weave- woven with float yarns to make fabric with a shiny surface
Knit Fabric (See: What are Knitted Fabrics?)
Fabric made by interlocking loops of yarn
It is stretchable and recovers to the original shape. Generally, it doesn’t wrinkle easily or fray. It may, however, run if snagged.
Fabric made by matting or binding fibers together
Edges do not fray or unravel when cut
Fabrics from Natural Fibers
Cotton is made from cotton plants.
Advantages: It is breathable and inexpensive. Cotton is also strong and comfortable.
Disadvantages: It’s prone to shrinking, stretching and it dries slowly. It also isn’t wrinkle resistant.
Advantages: It is the world’s strongest natural fiber. Linen is very easy to clean and can absorb moisture. Also, It is a very breathable fabric.
Disadvantages: It can very expensive.
Silk is made from a silkworm’s cocoon.
Advantages: A strong but lightweight fabric. It has great luster, is resilient and elastic. Also, it is stain resistant and moisture absorbent. Silk is very soft and smooth.
Disadvantages: Silk is very expensive and degrades over time. Perspiration can also deteriorate and discolor its dyes.
Wool is sheared from sheep.
Advantages: It is a great insulator and heat resistant. Wool can also hold moisture without feeling wet.
Disadvantages: Wool is sometimes scratchy and can be uncomfortable to wear.
Types of Synthetic Fibers (See: Clothing Fibers Article)
Advantages: It is very versatile and has good wear resistance. It is also resistant at soiling and can absorb oil and grease.
Disadvantages: Nylon attracts electricity also causing it to attract dirt and lint.
Polyester is a fiber made from coal, air, water, and petroleum.
Advantages: It is a wrinkle-free fabric. It is also hard to stain and has a strong mildew resistance.
Disadvantage: It can be uncomfortable and feel hot and sticky. Polyester is also highly shrinkable and absorbs dust.
Acrylic is often referred to as artificial wool.
Advantages: It is soft, flexible and has a wool-like texture. Resistant to shrinkage and wrinkling, acrylic is also easy to clean. It also retains color very well and is resistant to mildew and insects.
Disadvantages: It is poor at insulation. It is also not abrasion resistant.
Advantages: It is a strong and absorbent fiber and can generally withstand high temperatures. Rayon is also cheap and environmentally friendly.
Disadvantages: It wrinkles easily and is prone to shrinking. It also fades very easily in the sun.
Advantages: It has great elasticity and is lightweight and comfortable to wear. It is generally durable, strong, and abrasion-resistant.
Disadvantages: It sticks to your body and is not very breathable. It is also sensitive to heat.
Acetate is made from biodegrading and naturally occurring substances, especially wood shaving.
Advantages: It resembles silk and has a luxurious feel. It is also resistant to shrinkage and wrinkling.
Disadvantages: It is a weak fiber and requires gentle care. Also, the dyes can fade or bleed.
Advantages: It is very strong and one of the least expensive materials available.
Disadvantages: Burlap has a low crease resistance. It also has no draping property.
Calico is a plain woven fabric made from half processed unbleached cotton fibers.
Advantages: It is very versatile and cheap.
Disadvantages: It is coarse and rough.
Corduroy is composed of twisted fibers that may have wide or narrow cords or ribs.
Advantages: It is very durable and easy to work with. It also allows for many creative options.
Disadvantages: The fabric is very thick and hot.
Denim is a cotton twill weave fabric.
Advantages: It is very strong and durable.
Disadvantages: The fabric is coarse and generally does not have a stretch. It also fades very easily.
Flannel is plain or twill weave fabric with a soft brushed surface.
Advantages: It is warm, breathable, and comfortable.
Disadvantages: It can look worn and faded rather quickly.
Advantages: It is soft, warm, and durable. It is also ecologically friendly.
Disadvantages: Fleece is generally highly flammable. It also does not absorb moisture.
Gingham is made from cotton, synthetic fiber blends, or man-made olefin fibers.
Advantages: It is hardwearing and durable. It is also easily cleanable.
Disadvantages: It generally shrinks very easily.
Lace can be made from cotton or a chemical blend.
Advantages: It is very light, elegant and thin. It is also transparent.
Disadvantages: Lace is generally very delicate and tears easily.
Terry cloth is a woven or knit fabric with loop piles on one or both sides.
Advantages: It absorbs water very well. Terry cloth is also soft and durable.
Disadvantages: It is not easy to clean because of the loops.
Advantages: It is soft and opulent. It is generally a versatile fabric.
Disadvantages: Velvet can wear out easily. It also attracts dust and is difficult to clean.
Care labels are generally placed inside clothing to inform how to care for that garment. Usually these instructions are the same depending on what fiber the garment is made of, however, there are some exceptions.
|Fiber Name||Durability||Wrinkle Resistance||Absorbency||Care|
|Cotton||Very Good||Poor||Excellent||Machine Wash|
|Rayon||Moderate||Moderate||Good||Machine Wash Gentle|